Class 10 English Grammar CBSE (All Topics)

As per the academic curriculum, students can never avoid and escape from Class 10 English Grammar appearing at the CBSE Board Exam. Class 10 English Grammar plays an important figure in the English Language for class 10 students that naturally support them in various ways.

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Class 10 English Grammar is considered invaluable material for CBSE Class 10 students, offering essential resources for writing skills and crafting grammatical answers in the English exam.

This article is going to be very interesting as well as important as Class 10 English Grammar CBSE All Topics have been discussed step by step according to the latest Syllabus, Question Structure issued by CBSE.

Class 10 English Grammar for CBSE Topics & Syllabus.

Basically, Class 10 English Grammar for CBSE includes the following Grammatical topics. 

1. Tense 

2. Voice Change 

3. Subject-Verb Agreement  

4. Modals  

5. Reported Speech  

6. Clause 

7. Determiners 

8. Prepositions 

In the English Exam Paper, examiners set Class 10 English Grammar CBSE Questions as Integrated Grammar.

In order to correctly answer Integrated Grammar questions, it is necessary to read and know the above-mentioned Class 10 English grammar topics well.

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Class 10 Integrated Grammar Contents for CBSE

Therefore, the following Grammatical Topics that are found as Integrated Grammar in the Class 10 English Grammar CBSE Questions Papers are provided with exercises for practice with answers.

1. Gap Filling

2. Editing

3. Dialogue Writing

4. Omission

5. Reporting Dialogue

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Integrated Grammar Exercises for Class 9 with Answers

Last but not least, a good reading and careful understanding of the grammar topics mentioned below will help answer the Class 10 English Integrated Grammar CBSE questions accurately.

1. Tense for Class 10 English Grammar

One of the most crucial topics in Class 10 English Grammar is Tense and it needs regular practice.

Tense is the change of form in a Verb to express the time of an action. Verb and Tense are interrelated because it is the Verb of which Tense is determined. For Example,

  • They are playing football.
  • They were playing football.
  • They will be playing football.

Basically, there are three tenses in English Grammar as far as the action of the verbs is considered. Each Tense has been categorized into four forms. For Example,

1. Present Tense

(a) Simple Present

Structure: Subject + Verb+ Object.

Example: He plays football.

(b) Present Continuous

Structure: Subject + am / is/are / + Verb + ing  + Object.

Example: Tom is catching fish.

(c) Present Perfect

Structure: Subject + Have / Has  + Verb ( Past-Participle Form) +Object.  

Example: Students have made mistakes.

(d) Present Perfect Continuous

Structure: Subject + Have / Has + Been + Verb + Ing + Object.

Example: He has been playing football for two hours.

2. Past tense

(a) Simple Past

Structure: Subject+Verb (Past Form) +Object.

Example: The fisherman caught fish.

(b) Past Continuous

Structure: Subject + was/were+ Verb + ing  + Object.

Example: I was playing football.

(c) Past Perfect

Structure: Subject + Had  + Verb ( Past-Participle Form) +Object.  

Example: You had eaten rice.

(d) Past Perfect Continuous

Structure: Subject + Had + Been + Verb + Ing + Object.

Example: They had been eating rice.

3. Future Tense

(a) Simple Future

Structure: Subject + shall/will + Verb + Object.

Example: They will play football.

(b) Future Continuous

Structure: Subject + shall/will + not + be + Verb + ing  + Object.

Example: I shall not be eating rice.

(c) Future Perfect

Structure: Subject + shall/ Will + Have + Verb ( Past-Participle Form) + Object.

Example: You will have eaten rice.

(d) Future Perfect Continuous

Structure: Subject + shall/will + Have+ Been + Verb + Ing + Object.

Example: They will have been eating rice.

Use of present tense 

Universal or general truth, for example, Pride begets ruin.

habitual or permanent action, for example, My father works very hard.

future action. for example, I am going to New York tomorrow.

past events to make the narrative more vivid, for example, Sherlock Holms now begins to find the truth.

an action going on in the present, for example, He is doing the job.

to express an action just finished, for example, He has completed the work.

Use of past tense 

We use Past tense in sentences in the following situations

to indicate a single act in the past, for example, My brother wrote a letter.

habitual action in the past, for example, He studied herd

an action that was going on in the past, for example, They were playing football.

to express an action completed before another past action, for example, The patient had died before the doctor came.

Use of Future tense 

We may use the future tense in the sentences when the action of the verb indicates,

an action that will happen in the future, for example, They will recite a poem during the function.

represent an action that will be going on at some future time, for example, My mother will be sleeping at that time.

an action that will be completed at some point of time in the future, for example, He will have done this before you came.

2. Active and Passive Voice for Class 10 English Grammar

Active and Passive Voice is an important part of Class 10 English Grammar as this requires solving integrated Grammar correctly.

Voice is the form of the verb that shows whether the subject (person or thing) of the sentence is active (does something) or passive (something is done to him or her or it) at the action. 

  • (1) The teacher rebuked me.
  • (2) I was rebuked by the teacher.

The form of the verb of the first sentence shows that the subject (the teacher) is active i.e. he/ she does something (rebuked). When the subject is the doer of an action, it is the active subject. And the form of the verb is in Active Voice.

The form of the verb in the second sentence shows that the subject (I) is passive i.e. something is done to him/her (was rebuked). When the subject inactively receives an action (was rebuked), it is in the passive voice. And the verb form is in Passive voice.

Active Passive Voice Rules to Change in Sentences

1. write the ‘object’ of the ‘active voice’ as the ‘subject’ of the ‘passive voice’ at the beginning. 

2. Auxiliary Verbs as (am/is/are/has/have/was/were/had/shall be/will be) with ‘Being’ or ‘Been’ (where necessary) according to ‘Tense and its forms’, and ‘Passive Subjects’ come before the Main Verb in the Passive Sentence. 

Active VoicePassive Voice
eat/eatsam/is/are eaten
am/is/are eatingam being/is being/are being eaten
has/have eatenhas been/have been eaten
has been/have been eatinghas been being/have been being eaten
atewas/were eaten
was/were eatingwas being/were being eaten
had eatenhad been eaten
had been eatinghad been being eaten
shall/will eatshall be/will be eaten
shall be/will be eatingshall be being/will be being eaten
shall have/will have eatenshall have been/will have been eaten
shall have been/will have been eatingshall have been being/will have been being eaten

3. write the past-participle form of the main verb.

4. a ‘preposition’ comes after the main verb in the passive sentence. Generally, in most cases, we use the preposition, ‘by’ but there are some exceptions.

5. write the ‘Subject’ of the ‘active voice’ as the ‘Object’ of the ‘passive voice’ at the end of the sentence.

Subject PronounObject PronounPossessive Pronoun
RaviRaviRavi’s (his)
N.B – There will be no change of 'Nouns' in terms of Subject and Object from Active to Passive Voice.

We use Passive voice in the following situation

1. when we do not know who has done the action:

Example: My pocket has been picked. [who has stolen my purse is not known.]

2. the action done is more important than knowing who has done it.

Example: English is accepted as a global language.

3. In situations of social and historical significance.

Example: America was discovered by Columbus.

4. In Newspaper Report.

Example: Delhi was lashed by a thundershower on Monday evening.

5. To describe a Process.

Example: A mango pickle is prepared with the following steps.

6. In invitation, request, and announcement.

Example: Passengers are requested to keep a safe distance.

3. Subject-Verb Agreement for Class 10 English Grammar  

Go through the Subject-Verb Agreement for Class 10 English Grammar carefully to solve most of the integrated grammar questions.

Subject Verb Agreement Rules are the rules that deal with sentence construction and the grammatical agreement of other words in a sentence for correct usage. 

Two singular subjects joined by ‘and’ take plural verbs and pronouns.

Air and water are necessary for survival.

Verbs and Pronouns should be in Singular for subjects indicating the same person or thing

  • The headmaster and secretary has decided to hold a meeting in his room.
  • Author and publisher, Mr. Desai, is in town to inaugurate the Book Fair.

[Two nouns refer to one person]

  • The author and the publisher were not present at the meeting.
  • The headmaster and the secretary have decided to hold a meeting in their room

[Two nouns refer to two different people]

Verbs and Pronouns are Singular for Subjects expressing a single idea or the same meaning

Bread and butter is his only food.

‘Each’, ‘Every’, ‘No’, ‘Many a’, ‘Either’, and ‘Neither’ ‘Everyone’, ‘no one’, ‘Nobody’, and ‘One’, ‘More than one’ take Singular Verb and Pronoun.

  • Each girl and each boy was given a mango.
  • No man and no woman has been found there.
  • Every planet and every star revolves around its orbit.
  • Each man, woman, and child was wounded.
  • Many a man does not know his own ability.
  • Many a man has not seen the scenic beauty of the Himalayas.
  • Neither statement is true.
  • Either of the girls is intelligent.

‘No’ or ‘Not’ agree with the same number as the noun or pronoun preceding ‘and’.

  • Two leaves only, and no branch are required.
  • A stick, and not a string, is needed.

As well as’, ‘together with’, ‘with’, along with’, agree with the first noun/nouns

  • The captain as well as his crew members was polite.
  • The captain along with his teammates has played well.
  • I as well as Sushama am going for a picnic.
  • Samir together with his friends is playing.

For ‘Either … or’, ‘Neither … nor’, and ‘Or’ ‘not only …. but also’, the verb agrees with the subject closest to it/with the later subject.

  • Either Preeti or Sausamya is at home.
  • Either Preeti or the children are at home.
  • Neither the manager nor his assistant is present at the meeting.
  • Neither he nor his friends were going to the party.
  • Either you or Seema is going to clean the room.

For words like – ‘a number of’, ‘a group of’, ‘a lot of ‘, ‘the majority of ‘, ‘ a great deal of ‘, ‘most of’, ‘a variety of’, ‘None of the’, ‘Plenty of’, can take singular verb for amount/quantity and plural verb for number.

  • None of the work has been completed. [work – amount; was – singular verb]
  • None of the strategies have worked.[strategies – number; have – plural verb]
  • A lot of energy is ruined on finding treasure.
  • A lot of books have been written on home remedies.
  • A variety of music is available.
  • A variety of music albums are available.

Modals for Class 10 English Grammar

Can, May, Shall, Will, Must, Ought to, Used to, need, and dare are Modals in English Grammar.  They are also the Modal Auxiliary Verbs in English Grammar.  

(i) They do not have ’s forms.

(ii) They do not have – ing forms.

(iii) They do not have – ed participles forms.

(iv) Can, May, Shall, Will, have  special past forms ( Could, Might, Should, Would )

(v) Must, Ought to, Used to, need, dare do not have special past forms.

Can / Can’t

MeaningsUses with Examples
Can express ability or power.
Can’t express inability.
(i) He can sing well.
(ii) I cannot swim.
Can express permission.
Can’t express prohibition.
(i) You can do it now.
(ii) You cannot do it now.
Can express possibility. 
Can’t express impossibility.
(i) Accidents can happen in this crowded city.
(ii) You cannot be cruel for that reason.
Can  express  polite request (i) Can you lend me your pen?

Could / Couldn’t

Meaning Uses with Examples
Could express ability or power.
Couldn’t  express inability.
(i) He Could sing well.
(ii) I could not swim.
Could  express  polite request (iii) Could you tell me the time?

May / Mayn’t

MeaningsUses with Examples
May express  Possibility.
Mayn’t express Impossibility.
(i) It may rain today.
(ii) This may not be true. May used as Principal verb (with an infinitive as object)
May express  Permission.
Mayn’t express Light Prohibition.
(i) You may go now.
(ii) You may not spill here. May used as Principal verb (with an infinitive as object)
May express a Purpose. (i) We eat that we may live. May used as Auxiliary verb.
May  express  a Wish (i) May God bless you. May used as Auxiliary verb.

Might / Mightn’t Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Might  express  Possibility.
Mightn’t express Impossibility.
(i) The report might be true.
(ii) The report might not be true.  
Might  express  Purpose
Might express  Purpose in the negative.
(i) She read heard so that she might pass the exam.
(ii) He pretended to be ill so that he might not attend the meeting.  
Might express Failure on account of an unfulfilled condition with the Perfect Infinitive Have  (i) He might have recovered if he had proper nursing. ( unfulfilled condition) 
Might express greater DOUBT with a Present or Future meaning.(i) He might recover = His recovery chance is very slight.(Greater DOUBT)

Must / Mustn’t

MeaningsUses with Examples
Must express  Necessity / Command.   
Mustn’t express prohibition.
(i) You must read hard. (Necessity)
(ii) You must come earlier tomorrow.(Command) 
(iii)You must not spill here.
Must express  Certainty of belief in some fact / an Assumption.  (i)The man must be a liar.
Must express  Inevitability. (i) Man must die. ( Inevitability)
Must express  Compulsion. (i) You must do it. ( Compulsion)
Must express  Determination. (i) I must see him punished. ( Determination.)
Must express  Certainty. (i) You must obey your parents. (Certainty.)
Must express  Past Certainty. (“Have” is often added to “Must”) (i) You must have done it = It is certain that you did it. ( Past Certainty.)
Must  express  Moral Obligation / Obligation(i) You must obey your parents. (Moral Obligation)
(ii) You must do this work. (Obligation)
Must  express a Strong Likelihood(i) He must be worried about his brother.
Must  express  Strong Inference(i) The patient must die by night.

Shall / Shall not Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Shall   express  Simple Future( 1st Person)      (i) I shall buy a book.
Shall   express  Simple FutureCommand( 2nd  Person)Shan’t   express  Simple FutureCommand( 2nd  Person)          (i) You shall do this work. (ii) You shall not do this work.
Shall   express  Simple FuturePromise ( 2nd  Person)      (i)You shall have my book next week.
Shall   express  Simple FutureThreat ( 2nd  Person)      (i) He shall be punished for this.
Shall   express  Simple FutureDetermination ( 2nd  Person)      (i)You shall obey me.

Should / Should not Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Should  express Duty /Obligation   
Shouldn’t  express Obligation
(i) You should obey your parents. ( Duty)
(ii) We should go to school daily. (Obligation) 
(iii) We should not neglect our study. ( Obligation)
Should  express condition (i) Should you( If you should) go there, I would punish you.( condition)
Should  express Desire (i) I should go if I were with you. (Desire)
Should  express Necessity (i) A simple child, what should it know of death? (Necessity)
Should  express approval / Disapproval (i) I did not know that he should treat me thus. (Disapproval)
Should  express wish politely (i) I should like to help you. (polite wish)
Should  express Modesty   (i) I should like it.
Should  express Advice   (i) You should obey your parents.(Advice)
Should  express Suggestion   (i) You should consult a doctor.

Ought to Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Ought to express Duty or Moral Obligation(i)We ought to help the neighbours.( It is our duty to help the neighbours) (ii)you ought to keep your promise.( Moral Obligation)
Ought to express strong Probability(i) He ought to come by noon.(ii) You ought to pass in the First Division.(strong Probability)

Would /Would not Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Would   express Condition or uncertainty             (i) If you would go there, you would see new sight.  
Would   express Determination (i) I repeatedly told him to go , but he would not.
Would   express Past occasional or irregular Habit (i) While in Kolkata, he would go to Eden Gardens.
Would   express Strong Wish (i) I wish you would not make such a noise.
Would   express Soften the expression (i) I hope you would kindly lend me the book.

(i) Subjunctive construction beginning with “ Should ”, and “Would” be followed by “ Should”, and “Would” instead of “shall”, “will”

(a) Should you pass, he will give you a prize.Incorrect

(b) Should you pass, he would give you a prize. – Correct

(ii) Afterwords denoting  “ Intention ”, “ Desire ”, and “Anxiety ” ( but not “ Hope ” or “ Expectation ” ) the auxiliary verb introduced by “ that ” is “ shall ” should ” notwill or would ”. As,

(a) I desire that he should win the prize.

(b) I intend that my son shall or should be a doctor.

(c) He is anxious that  I shall or should recover soon.

MeaningsUses with Examples
Used to express Discontinued or Irregular Past Habitual Action(i) They used to live here last year.(ii)He used to see me daily before.

Notes For Would  and Used to :

 Both would and Used to ” express past habits. But in the case of regular and continued action, we can never use both “would” and “ Used to ”. Only in case of discontinued or irregular Past habits, we can use both “would ” and  “Used to”. Used to has no Present Form; therefore, we cannot use them for a Present Habit.

(i) He used to bathe in the river.

(ii) While in Kolkata, he would go to Eden Gardens.

Need / Need not Meanings with Examples

MeaningsUses with Examples
Need used only in Negative and Interrogative Sentences.(i) He need not run so fast.
(ii) Need I go there?
(iii) Need Sheila to see you in the morning?

Reported Speech for Class 10 English Grammar

Direct and Indirect Speech – Definition

When a sentence is quoted with the exact words the speaker uses, it is called a sentence in Direct Speech. For example:

Anushka said to Latika, “I have seen Lionel Messi score a goal.” (Direct Speech)

When the sentence is spoken or written in the form of a narrative without quoting the speaker’s actual words but keeping the meaning the same, it is called a sentence in Indirect Speech. For example:

Anuska told Latika that she had seen Lionel Messi score a goal. (Indirect Speech)

Since there are five types of sentences or speeches in English, it is very important that we must identify each sentence first before applying direct and indirect speech rules for conversion.

Direct and Indirect Speech rules for conversion

Change of Pronouns

(a) If the subject of the reported speech of direct form is in the first person, the subject of the reported speech will replace the subject of the reporting verb in indirect form, but the number must be the same. [ singular > singular and plural > plural ]

(b) If the subject of the reported speech in the Direct Form is in the second person, the subject of the reported speech will replace the object of the reporting verb in the indirect form, but the number must be the same. [ singular > singular and plural > plural ]

(c) If the subject of the reported speech of Direct Form is in the third person, there will be no change in the person of the Indirect Form.

I (1st person, singular)me (1st person, singular)
We (1st person, plural)us (1st person, plural)
You (2nd person, singular / plural)You (2nd person, singular / plural)
He (3rd person, singular)him (3rd person, singular)
She (3rd person, singular)her (3rd person, singular)
They (3rd person, plural)them (3rd person, plural)

Change of Tense

a. Present Tense:

If the Reporting Verb is in the Present Tense, there is no change in the tense in the Reported Verb when Direct Speech converts into Indirect Narration.


  • Direct: Arnab says, “The room is dark.”
  • Indirect: Arnab says that the room is dark.
  • Direct: Arnab says, “The room was dark.”
  • Indirect: Arnab says that the room was dark.
  • Direct: Arnab says, “I shall finish the work.”
  • Indirect: Arnab says that he will finish the work.
b. Future Tense:

If the Reporting Verb is in the Future Tense, there is no change in the tense of the Reported Verb from Direct Speech to Indirect Narration.


  • Direct: Arnab will say, “The room is dark.”
  • Indirect: Arnab will say that the room is dark.
  • Direct: Arnab will say, “The room was dark.”
  • Indirect: Arnab will say that the room was dark.
  • Direct: Arnab will say, “I shall finish the work.”
  • Indirect: Arnab will say that he will finish the work.
c. Past Tense:

If the Reporting verb of the Direct Narration is in the Past Tense, the Present Tense of the Verb in the Reported Speech of Direct Narration converts into the corresponding Past Tense in Indirect Narration.

Reporting VerbReported Verb in Direct SpeechReported Verb in Indirect Speech
PastPresent IndefinitePast Indefinite
PastUniversal Truth or Regular HabitsRemains Unchanged
PastPresent ContinuousPast Continuous
PastPresent PerfectPast Perfect
PastPast IndefinitePast Perfect
PastPast ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
PastPast PerfectRemains Unchanged
PastShall / WillShould / Would
PastCan / MayCould / Might
  • Direct Speech: Rohan said, “She works hard.”
  • Indirect Speech: Rohan said that she worked hard
  • Direct Speech: Rohan said, “She is singing a song.”
  • Indirect Speech: Rohan said that she was singing a song.
  • Direct Speech: The guest said shouting, “We have arrived .”
  • Indirect Speech: The guest said shouting that they had arrived.
  • Direct Speech: My sister said, “It has been raining hard for 3 days”.
  • Indirect Speech: My sister said that it had been raining hard for 3 days.
  • Direct Speech: Father said, “I visited the Taj yesterday.”
  • Indirect Speech: Father said that he had visited the Taj the previous day.
  • Direct Speech: Boys said, “They were travelling in the park.”
  • Indirect Speech: Boys said that they had been travelling in the park.
  • Direct Speech: Jyotsna said, “ She had been doing the work for 3 hours”.
  • Indirect Speech: Jyotsna said that she had been doing the work for 3 hours.

Change of Time, Place, Manner, Distance, and Direction

In Indirect Narration, words denoting Time, Place, Manner, Distance, and Direction used in the quoted speech correspondingly change to conform to the point of view of the Reporter. Thus, the sense of nearness changes into that of Distance, and so on.


Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
nowthen /at that time
long agolong before
todayThat day /the same day
tonightthat night /the same night
tomorrowthe next day /the following day
yesterdaythe previous day /the day before
yesterday nightthe previous night /the night before
last nightthe previous night /the night before
last eveningthe previous evening /the evening before
last weekthe previous week /the week before
last fortnightthe previous fortnight /the fortnight before
last monththe previous month /the month before
last yearthe previous year /the year before
last occasionthe previous occasion
next daythe following day /the day after
next weekthe following week /the week after
next fortnightthe following fortnight /the fortnight after
next monththe following month /the month after
next yearthe following year /the year after
on the next occasionon the following occasion


Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
at this placeat that place


Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
thusso /in that way
in this wayin that way
in this mannerin that manner


Direct NarrationIndirect Narration


Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
From hereFrom there

Assertive Sentence

1. No comma (, ) after the Reporting verb in Indirect Speech.

2. The full stop ( . ) at the end of the sentence in indirect speech.

3. Reporting verbs in Direct Speech (say/said/say to you / said to me) will convert into (say/said/tell you / told me) in Indirect Speech.

4. Connective ‘that’ is to add between Reporting Verb and Direct Speech in Indirect Narration.


1. He says, “I shall help the poor.”

Ans: He says that he will help the poor.

Interrogative Sentence

1. No comma (, ) after the Reporting verb in Indirect Speech.

2. The full stop ( . ) at the end of the sentence in indirect speech.

3. Reporting verbs in Direct Speech (say/said/say to you / said to me) will be changed into (ask/asked/ask you / asked me) in Indirect Speech. Reporting Verbs in Indirect Speech may also be ‘ enquire of ’, or ‘want to know’.

4. Connective ‘if/whether’ is to add between Reporting Verb and Direct Speech in Indirect Narration, if the interrogative sentence is not introduced with interrogative pronouns – who, what, whom, when, why, whose, where, how, etc.

5. In Indirect speech, the interrogative sentence will turn into an Assertive Sentence. That means the subject will follow the verbs.


1. The boy said to me, ‘Will you help me?”

Ans: He said to me, “How old are you?”

Imperative Sentence

1. In Indirect Speech, the reporting verb becomes order, request, advise, ask, tell, etc. according to the sense.

2. Infinitive, “to” is used before the main verb in Indirect Speech.

3. In the case of the Negative Imperative, ‘not’ is used before the Infinitive in the Indirect Speech. The verb ‘forbid’, ‘prohibit’, etc may be used and in that case ‘not’ is not used before the Infinitive.

4. The expressions like ‘Sir’ and ‘please’ in Direct Speech are omitted in Indirect Speech and reporting verbs ‘request’, ‘entreat’ etc., and adverbs ‘kindly’, ‘politely’, ‘respectfully’ etc, may be used in their place to express the sense.

5. ‘Let’ with ‘us’ express ‘ suggestion’, or ‘proposal’- reporting verb in Indirect Speech will be ‘suggest’, ‘propose’; ‘Let’ changed to ‘should’ and placed after subject; connective ‘that’ is used.

6. ‘Let’ with ‘me’, ‘him’, and ‘her’ not express ‘ suggestion’, or ‘proposal’ – reporting verb in Indirect Speech will be ‘request’ or ‘wish’ according to sense; ‘Let’ changed to ‘may/may be allowed to’ – Present Tense; might /might be allowed to – Past Tense’ and placed after subject; connective ‘that’ is used


Direct Speech: The teacher said to the pupils, “Respect your superiors.”

Direct Speech: You said to her, “Don’t insult me.”

Direct Speech:  My friend said to me, “Let us go for a picnic.”

Direct Speech:  The girl said to her mother, “Let me take some rest for a while.”

Optative Sentence

1. In Indirect Speech, the reporting verb becomes wish, pray, desire.

2. Connective ‘that’ is introduced.


1. Mother said, ‘May you be happy.’

Ans: Mother wished that I might be happy.

Exclamatory Sentence

1. In reporting Exclamatory Sentences, the reporting verb according to sense in the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb like ‘exclaim in (with) joy,’ ‘exclaim in (with) sorrow’, ‘exclaim in (with) wonder, ‘exclaim in (with) anger,’ ‘exclaim in (with) despair, ‘exclaim in (with) shame, may be used.

2. Where the nature of exclamation is not clear, the reporting verb ‘cry out’ or ‘exclaim’ only may be used.

3. The exclamation form is changed into Assertive Form with the linker ‘that’.

4. Exclamatory Sentence beginning with ‘what’ or ‘how’ becomes ‘great’ or ‘very’ according to sense, usually ‘great’ is used before a Noun and ‘very’ before an Adjective.

5. Note of exclamation ( ! ) turns into a full stop ( . ) in the Indirect Speech.


1. He said, “What a beautiful sight it is!”

Ans: He exclaimed in (with) joy that it was a very beautiful sight

Clause for Class 10 English Grammar

“A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb forming a sentence or part of a sentence. He often visits Spain because he likes the climate. ”He often visits Spain” is a Main Clause and “because he likes the climate” is a subordinate clause.” – A.L.D.

Clauses are of two  kinds:

1. Principal Clause or Main Clause or Independent Clause :

2. Subordinate Clause or Dependent Clause

Subordinate clauses are of three kinds with examples –

(A) Noun clause or Nominal clauses:

Noun clauses or Nominal clauses do the work of a Noun.

(a)  Why he was crying is unknown to his father.

(b)  Tell me frankly why you did this.

(c)  Pay careful attention to what I say.

(d)  My belief is that he will not come.

(e)  There is a rumour that he has been arrested.

There are three kinds of connectives or linkers by which a Noun Clause can be introduced.

(A) The conjunction “that” used as Apposition or in a merely introductory sense: 

He told us ( the fact) that rain had fallen. [The dependent sentence in the above example is in apposition with the noun in the bracket; sometimes it may be either omitted or expressed.]

I know that he is ill. [when no noun stands before “that” for the purpose of  apposition, it might be called the Introductory Conjunction.]

(B) A Relative or Interrogative Adverb provided that no Antecedent is expressed:

Why he was crying is unknown to his father. (Relative Adverb)

I want to know whether or if he will play with us. (Interrogative Adverb)

(C) A Relative or Interrogative Pronoun provided that no Antecedent is expressed:

Who knew the fact was not present here. (Relative Pronoun)

I want to know who will be with you tomorrow. ( Interrogative Pronoun)

(B) Adjective Clauses or Relative clauses:

Adjective Clauses or Relative clauses do the work of an Adjective.

“I know the boy who has done it.” –  In this sentence, the clause “who has done it” describes the noun “the boy ”. So, this clause does the work of an adjective. It is an Adjective Clause.

Linkers or Connectives of Adjective Clause:

Relative Pronouns:  who, which, that, whom, whose

Relative Adverbs:  when, where, why, how

For people: who, whose, what

For things: which, that

For places: where

For times: when

For possession: whose

An antecedent is “The Noun” or “The Pronoun” to which the Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb refers to. The relative pronoun takes the number, person, or gender of its Antecedent.

Relative Clause joined by Relative Pronoun:

(i) This is the pen which I lost yesterday.

(ii) She is my mother whom I love most.

(iii) Have you read the book which I gave you?

Relative Clause joined by Relative Adverb:

(i) I know the time when the train will arrive.

(ii) This is the place where he was born.

(iii) He told me the reason why he did not attend the meeting.

(C) Adverb Clauses:

Adverb Clauses do the work of an Adverb.

when it is used in the sense of Apposition. As,  

(i) He came when I was there.  

“ When I was there ” is a Subordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb,   “came ” in the Principal Clause “ He came ”

(ii) The tree is taller than it appears.

Hear the Adverb Clause modifies the adjective “ taller ”.

(iii) He was so weak that he could not speak.

Here the Adverb Clause modifies the adverb “ so ”.

Linkers or Connectives of Adverbial Clause of Time:

when, before, after, till, until, since, as soon as, no sooner …….. than, while.

Adverbial Clause                   Subordinating Conjunctions 
Time when, before, after, till, until, since, as soon as, no sooner …….. than, while. 
Place where, whence, wherever 
Reason (Cause) Because,  as,  since,  that.
Purpose: that,  so that,  in order that,  lest 
Result : that,   so …… that,   such …….. that.
Condition or Supposition: if, unless, in case,  whether, on condition that,  provided that, supposing that, even if, as long as that 
Manner or Extent : As,  as if, as much as,   so far as
Concession or Contrast though,  although,  whoever,  whatever, whichever, however 
Comparison : than,  so … as,  as …. as,   such ….. as

Determiners for Class 10 English Grammar

For solving integrated Grammar, determiners for Class 10 English Grammar decisive part.

Determiners are words that modify nouns. In other words, determiners are words that we use before nouns to determine or alter their meaning. Determiners function like adjectives. 

Classification of Determiners

Determiners can be classified into

1. Articles:  A, an, the.

2. Demonstrative Adjectives:  This, that, these, those.

3. Quantifiers:  A quantifier is a word or phrase used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity:  One, two, hundred,…, first, second, both, etc. Some, many, much, enough, few, a few, all, little, a little, several, most, etc. Each, every, all, either, neither, Another, other, More, less, fewer.

4. Possessives:  My, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, hers, yours, ours, theirs, etc.

1. Articles-A, An, The

Articles are used before nouns. ‘A’ is used before a noun starts with a consonant sound and ‘An’ is used before a noun starts with a vowel sound. The’ is used before singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns, and uncountable nouns.

Use of Indefinite Articles: A/An

‘A’ is used before a noun beginning with a consonant sound.

Example:  a woman, a horse, a university

‘An’ is used before a noun beginning with a vowel sound.

Example:  an orange, an egg, an elephant, an hour

Use of Definite Article: The

‘The’ is used before singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

The’ is used

I. While talking about a particular person or thing or one already referred to (that is, when it is clear from the context which one do we mean).

Example: The book you want is not available.

II. When a singular noun represents the whole class.

Example: The dog is a faithful animal.

III. Before some proper names that denote physical features.


Oceans and seas: the Pacific Ocean, The Arabian Sea

Rivers: The Yamuna, The Thames

Canals: the Suez Canal

Deserts: The Desert, the Sahara Desert.

Group of islands: the West Indies, the Netherlands

Mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Satpura Ranges

A few names of countries, which include words like States, Republic, or Kingdom: The People’s Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Republic of Korea, the Hague, etc.

IV. Before the names of religious or mythological books.

Examples: the Vedas, the Puranas, and the Mahabharata (but we say Homer’s Illiad, Valmiki’s Ramayana).

V. Before the names of things which are unique or one of their kind.

Example: the Sun, the Moon, the Pacific Ocean

VI. Before a proper noun, when it is qualified by an adjective or a defining adjectival clause.


The Great Caesar, the King of Rome

The Mr. Verma whom you met last night is my boss.

VII. With superlative degrees.

Example: This is the worst performance I have ever seen.

VIII. With ordinals.

Example: He was the first man to walk on the Moon.

IX. Before musical instruments.

Example: He can play the tabla very well.

X. Before an adjective when the noun is understood.

Example: The rich always exploit the poor. 

XI. As an adverb with comparatives.

Example: The more money we have, the more we want.

Omission of Article ‘The’

I. Before material, abstract and proper nouns are used in a general sense.


(a) Honesty is the best policy. 

(b) Sugar tastes sweet. 

(c) Paris is the capital of France. 

II. Before plural countable nouns used in a general sense.

Example:  Children like toys.

III. Before names of people.

Example:  Rohit.

IV. Before names of continents, countries; cities etc

Example: Europe, Pakistan, Nagpur.

V. Before names of individual mountains

Example: Mount Everest.

VI. Before names of meals used in a general sense.

Example: Dinner is ready.

VII. Before languages and words like school, college, university, church, hospital.


(a) I learn English at school.

(b) My uncle is still in the hospital.

VIII. Before names of relations, like father, mother, etc.

Example: Father is still not at home.

IX. In certain phrases consisting of a preposition followed by its object.


At home, in hand, by night, in case, on foot, by train, on-demand, etc.

2. Demonstrative Adjectives (This, That, These, Those)

I. That (in case of plural, those)

(a) It is used to avoid the repetition of the preceding noun(s).


My bat is better than that of my friend.

Our soldiers are better equipped than those of Pakistan.

(b) It refers to person(s) or thing(s) far from the speaker.


Get that dog out of here.

Those houses are for sale.

II. This (in case of plural, these)

(a) It refers to person(s) or thing(s) near the speaker.


This book is very interesting.

These flowers are very beautiful.


‘Some’, ‘many’, ‘a lot of’, and ‘a few’ are examples of quantifiers. Quantifiers can be used in affirmative sentences, questions, requests or commands with countable and uncountable nouns.


There are some books on the desk.

He’s got only a few dollars.

How much money have you got?

There is a large quantity of fish in this river.

He’s got more friends than his sister.

Usage of Quantifiers

I. Use of few/a few and little/a little

(a) Few, a few, and the few.

Few emphasize the lack of something

There are few sweets left in the jar.

A few emphasize that something still remains.

We still have a few minutes left before the class

(b) Little, a little, and the little

Little emphasizes the lack of something

We have little money right now, we should go out for dinner another day.

A little emphasizes that something still remains.

There’s a little ice cream left; who will eat it?

II. Use of much and many

(a) We use much with singular uncountable nouns and many with plural nouns.

Example: I haven’t got much change; I’ve only got a hundred rupee note.

(b) We usually use much and many with interrogative sentences and negative sentences.


Is there much unemployment in that area?

How many eggs have not been used in this cake?

Will many people come?

The rain was pouring down in torrents but there wasn’t much wind.

III. Use of more, less, and fewer

(a) We use more or less before singular uncountable nouns by adding than after it, or for an additional or lesser quantity of something.


I do more work than Suresh.

Please give me some more salad.

Satish does less work than me.

I want less salad than Mahesh.

(b) We use fewer before plural countable nouns to refer to a group of things smaller than another.


Fewer students succeeded in passing than last year.

We had fewer computers a year ago.

IV. Use of each and every

(a) We use each for two or more than two items and every for more than two items. Both of these are followed by singular countable nouns and singular verbs.


Each of the two boys won a prize.

Every student in the school is present today.

(b) We use each when the number in the group is limited or definite, but every is used when the number is indefinite or unknown.


Each student in my class was promoted.

Every person in the world has a parent.

V. Use of most, several and all

(a) We usually use most with plural uncountable nouns.

Most of the people can be trusted.

Most of the time I am not at home.

(b). We usually use several with plural nouns, but it refers to a number which is not very large. (i.e. less than most)


Several people were crushed in the stampede.

Several people lost their lives in the Tsunami

(c) All requires a plural verb when used with a countable uncountable noun.

noun, but requires a singular verb with an uncountable noun.


All are going to Delhi.

All that glitters is not gold.

VI. Use of another and other

We use another only with singular countable nouns, whereas we use others with singular countable, plural countable, or uncountable nouns.


Bring me another knife, as this one is blunt.

I would prefer the other house.

The other students went back home.

VII. Use of either and neither

(a) We use either to refer to two things, people, situations, etc. It may mean one or the other of two or each of the two.

Example: I don’t agree with either Ram or Shyam.

(b) We use neither with only singular countable nouns and a singular verb. Neither is the negative of either.

Example: Neither of the two boys passed the exam.

4. Possessives (My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Their, etc)

Possessive determiners or possessive adjectives tell us who owns something. We use a possessive determiner before a noun to show who owns the noun we are talking about. They come in front of any other adjectives.


This is your book.

That is our beautiful house.

This is my book.

The dog licked its paw.

Which is their car?

All three of you, have you done your homework?

Prepositions for Class 10 English Grammar 

Prepositions for Class 10 English Grammar is one more topic that needs practice to know its proper usage.

A preposition is a word or group of words used before a noun, pronoun, gerund, etc to show its relation with another word in a sentence.

Prepositions of Time

1. At:

At is used to indicate when something happens. We use ‘at’ with clock times, e.g. periods of the year, periods of the day, festivals, etc. But we don’t use ‘at’ with “morning’, ‘evening’, ‘afternoon’, etc.


at 8 o’clock, at Dussehra and Diwali, at the weekend, at night, at the age of twenty, at noon/dawn/dusk.

2. In:

In is used to indicate the period of time in which something happens. We use ‘in’ with centuries, years, seasons, months, periods of the day ‘morning’, ‘evening’, ‘afternoon”:


in the 16th century, in 1990, in the evening, in summer, in the daytime, in October, in three minutes/hours/days/years.

3. On:

On is used with days, dates, birthdays, anniversaries, etc.


on Tuesday, on his birthday, on October 3, 1980, on their 20th marriage anniversary.

Note: We use ‘on’ with ‘morning’, ‘afternoon’, ‘evening’, etc. when they are modified:

They reached here on a hot afternoon.

People did not come out of their houses on a night like this.

We went fishing on a pleasant morning.

4. During:

During may be used instead of ‘in’ with periods of the day, months, seasons, years, decades and centuries to express the idea that something continues throughout the whole of a specified period.


During the war, during the day and sleep, during the night, during October, During the nineties, during the week, During the journey.

5. By:

By is used to indicate the latest time at which an action will be finished:


by 5 o’clock, By that time, by 10th May, by 8 a.m., by day and travelled, by night, By mid-afternoon 

6. For:

For is used with periods of time to indicate how long an action lasts. It is generally used with the Perfect Tense but is also used with other tenses.


for five years, for fifteen days, for another three hours, for twelve hours, for two hours.

7. Since:

Since is used with a point of time in the past from which some action began and it continues till the time of speaking. It is generally used with the Perfect Tense:

since 1980, since the last summer, since the end of June, since he was thirty years old.

8. From:

From indicates the starting point of an action in the past or future. It is always used with ‘to’ or ‘till’.


We worked from morning to/till evening.

He lives in his office from 9 am. to 5 pm.

They lived here from 1980 till/until 1990.

She lived with them from the age of twenty.

She is interested in the period from 1950 to 1960.

9. Till/Until:

Till and Until are used to show something happening or done up to a particular point in time and then stopping:


He is expected to be here until/till the end of the week.

I was employed by the company until 1980.

You will have to wait until my return.

10. Before and After:

The preposition before and after are used to relate events to a particular time. Before means earlier than and after means later than something.


before six, after 8 o’clock, before Monday, after our marriage.

3 Prepositions of Place:

1. At:

At is used to show the exact point, e.g. houses, stations, small villages and towns:


at Gohana, at his village, at 10 Downing Street, at the Town Hall, at London Airport, and at New Delhi Railway Station.

2. In:

In is generally used when the reference is not to any specific place or to the names of large cities, countries, continents, etc.


in Bengaluru, in Europe for ten years, in villages, in India

3. On:

On is used to indicate a particular area of land or place where something is:


on a farm for some time, on a beautiful piece of land, on the outskirts of the city, on the banks of a river, on an island.

Prepositions of Direction:

1. From:

From is used with the starting point or point of departure from a place or the point of origin:


from China, from Chennai, from Kolkata, from the office at 6 p.m., from the fifth floor of the hotel.

2. Off:

Off means from the surface of and also down from:


He took the hat off the table.

The ball rolled off the floor.

Take this packet off the shelf.

The boy fell off the tree/roof.

Keep off the grass.

3. Out of:

Out of means from the interior of something:


He went out of the room.

She jumped out of the shelf,

The bird flew out of the cage.

I saw him coming out of the library.

Direction Towards:

1. For:

For is used to show direction only when the verb indicates the beginning of a movement:


She left for Japan early in the morning.

They left for home late at night.

We set off for New York

2. Against:

Against means to have contact or pressure:


The child threw the ball against the wall.

He put the ladder against the wall.

He hit his head against the branch.

The crowd pressed against the door.

She stood, with her back against the wall.

3. To:

To is used for a destination or the end-point:


He went from Delhi to Ambala.

The train started from Kolkata and came to Delhi.

He was on his way to the station.

The dog was under the table.

They took shelter under the trees.

She came to India as a tourist.

We went from London to New York.

4. Towards:

Towards is used to indicate the direction of something:


They went towards the airport.

The train was coming towards the station.

He ran towards the door.

She was speeding towards the town.

I saw him hurrying towards me.

She marked towards the river.

5 Prepositions of Position:

1. Under:

Under is used to indicate a position that is below or beneath something. It means vertically below:


He looked under the bed.

The water flows under the bridge.

2. Underneath:

Underneath has the same meaning as under. It means a position below something.


She found a lot of dust underneath the carpet.

The coin rolled underneath the table.

He hid the gun underneath the bed.

He left the key underneath the mat.

“Underneath’ generally implies being covered by something so that the object covered is not seen.

3. Below and Beneath:

Below means in a position lower than something:


They could see the village below them.

He had a wound below the left shoulder.

The lake is 500 feet below sea level.

You should write below this line.

Beneath also means a lower position than something:


The boat sank beneath the waves.

They found the body beneath a pile of grass.

Beneath has the sense of being directly under something.

4. Over:

Over is used to indicate a position vertically above something or somebody or partly or completely covering the surface of something.


She hung the calendar over the fireplace.

They held a large umbrella over her.

There were books all over the table.

There was a lamp (hanging) over the table.

5. Above:

Above is used to indicate a position higher than something:


There were clouds above us.

The water came above our knees.

The pilot was flying above the clouds.

We lived in the room above the shop.

The birds were flying high above the trees.

Above has the sense of something being directly over something else.

6 Prepositions of Travel and Movement:

1. Across:

Across is used to indicate movement from one side of a space, area, line to the other side.


I walked across the road.

The cat ran across the lawn.

He walked across the street.

They flew across the Pacific.

2. Along:

Along is used to indicate movement from one end to or towards the other end of something.


We walked along the street.

He hurried along the path towards me.

She went along the corridor.

3. Into:

Into is used to indicate movement inside a place seen as a volume. The opposite of into is out of. It is used for entering a place, building, vehicle, etc:


The boys came into the hall.

He got into a bus/a train/a plane/a car.

She ran into the house.

The athletes marched into the stadium.

4. Onto:

Onto is used to indicate movement into a position on an object or surface:


He climbed onto the roof.

The cat jumped onto the table.

A tree fell onto a car.

He stepped out of the train onto the platform.

5. Through:

Through is used to indicate movement from one end of an opening or a passage to the other.


The train passed through a tunnel.

They were riding through a forest.

The water flows through this pipe.

The ball went flying through the window.

6. Up and Down:

Up is used to indicate movement to a higher position and down to a lower position.


We climbed up the hill.

The girl ran up the stairs.

I set off up the road.

She fell down the stairs.

She was walking down the street.

The stone rolled down the hill.

7. On/In/By (Travel):

We may use on, in or by while using a public or private vehicle. On is used when the vehicle is seen as a surface, in is used when it is seen as a volume. By is used to indicate the means of travel.


We travelled on horseback/foot/a cycle/a bus/a plane.

They travelled by bus/car/train/cycle/sea/plane/air.

We travelled in a bus/a car/a train/a ship/a plane.

7 Between and Among:

Between places with two persons or things. Among places with more than two people of things:


Between you and me, she is very stupid.

She divided the apples between the two children.

C comes between B and D.

He lives in a house among the trees.

Samesh sat between Mahesh and Ramesh.

She divided the money among her four sons.

Satish works among the poor.

But in order to mention each individual perso, between is used even if there are more than two:

The money was divided up between Mohan, Sohan and Rohan.

If the people are mentioned as a single group, among is used:

I shared out the food among the family.

The girl quickly disappeared among the crowd.

8 By and Beside:

By means close to someone or something. Beside means by the side of someone or something. Both imply nearness:


She was sitting by the door.

The telephone is by the window.

There is a glass just by your elbow.

She was sitting beside her mother.

Who is standing beside Kumar?